Document Type


Publication Date



Public Health Program


BACKGROUND: Globally, the prevalence of HIV among transgender women is much higher than that of the general adult population. This can be explained by the persistently low rate of consistent condom use among this population. This study was therefore conducted to explore factors associated with consistent condom use among sexually-active transgender women in Cambodia, specifically with their non-commercial partners.

METHODS: Data used for this study were collected as part of the National Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey 2016. Participants were recruited from the capital city of Phnom Penh and 12 other provinces with high burden of HIV using the Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore independent factors associated with consistent condom use.

RESULTS: This study included 1202 transgender women who reported having anal sex with at least one male partner not in exchange for money or gifts in the past three months. The mean age of the participants was 26.0 (SD = 7.0) years. Of the total, 41.5% reported always using condoms with male non-commercial partners in the past three months. After adjustment, the likelihood of consistent condom use was significantly higher among participants who resided in an urban community (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), had attained at least 10 years of formal education (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7), perceived that they were likely or very likely to be HIV infected (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.0-4.1), reported drinking alcohol two to three times per week (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.3), reported using amphetamine-type stimulants (AOR = 1.9, 95% = 1.1-3.8) or other drugs (AOR = 7.6, 95% CI = 1.5-39.5), and reported inconsistent condom use with male commercial partners in the past three months (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.8-10.4) compared to that of their respective reference group.

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the low rates of condom use, particularly in non-commercial relationship, among transgender women in Cambodia. To address these concerns, efforts towards education about effects of multiple, concurrent relationships, and inconsistent condom use should be reinforced among transgender women.

Publisher's Statement

Originally published in BMC Public Health, 19(1), [Article 326]. The original material can be found here.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.