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Background: Despite remarkable success in the fight against HIV, HIV prevalence in many countries remains high among key populations including men who have sex with men (MSM), and HIV testing rates is relatively low among this hard-to-reach population. This cross-sectional study explores factors associated with recent HIV testing among MSM in Cambodia.

Methods: This study was conducted in 2014 and included 384 MSM randomly selected from two provinces of Battembang and Siem Reap, using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, sexual behaviors, HIV testing attitudes, and HIV knowledge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with recent HIV testing.

Results: Mean age of the participants was 23.4 (SD = 5.2). Of total, 83.6 % had been tested for HIV at least once in their lifetime, and 65.1 % had been tested for HIV in the past six months. After controlling for other covariates, MSM who had been tested for HIV in the past six months were significantly more likely to regard themselves as female (AOR = 2.29, 95 % CI = 1.06-5.37), have received some form of HIV education in the past six months (AOR = 3.97, 95 % CI = 1.91-8.26), perceive that they were at higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.14-4.86), have been diagnosed with an STI in the past six months (AOR = 3.19, 95 % CI = 1.02-9.24), report using a condom at last sexual intercourse with a man or woman (AOR = 2.24, 95 % CI = 1.06-3.13), and report using a condom at last sexual intercourse with a boyfriend (AOR = 2.17, 95 % CI = 1.04-5.31).

Conclusions: This study highlights the common practices of risky sexual behaviors and relatively low rate of recent HIV testing among MSM in Cambodia. HIV education and social marketing should be expanded and tailored for MSM, specifically addressing the risk of unprotected anal intercourse and the importance of regular HIV testing for early enrolment in the care and treatment cascade.

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Originally published in BMC Public Health, 15(1) [Article 743]. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2096-4