NYX-2925 Is a Novel NMDA Receptor-Specific Spirocyclic-beta-Lactam That Modulates Synaptic Plasticity Processes Associated with Learning and Memory
Cell Biology and Anatomy
Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are one member of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and have become attractive therapeutic targets for diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neuropathic pain. NYX-2925 ((2S, 3R)-3-hydroxy-2-((R)-5-isobutyryl-1-oxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide) is one member of a spiro-beta-lactam-based chemical platform that mimics some of the dipyrrolidine structural features of rapastinel (formerly GLYX-13: threonine-proline-proline-threonine) and is distinct from known N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists or antagonists such as D-cycloserine, ketamine, MK-801, kynurenic acid, or ifenprodil. Methods: The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of NYX-2925 were examined. Results: NYX-2925 has a low potential for "off-target" activity, as it did not exhibit any significant affinity for a large panel of neuroactive receptors, including hERG receptors. NYX-2925 increased MK-801 binding to human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A-D subtypes expressed in HEK cells and enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current and long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal slices (100-500 nM). Single dose ex vivo studies showed increased metaplasticity in a hippocampal LTP paradigm and structural plasticity 24 hours after administration (1 mg/kg p.o.). Significant learning enhancement in both novel object recognition and positive emotional learning paradigms were observed (0.01-1 mg/kg p.o.), and these effects were blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist CPP. NYX-2925 does not show any addictive or sedative/ataxic side effects and has a therapeutic index of greater than 1000. NYX-2925 (1 mg/kg p.o.) has a cerebrospinal fluid half-life of 1.2 hours with a Cmax of 44 nM at 1 hour. Conclusions: NYX-2925, like rapastinel, activates an NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity process and may have therapeutic potential for a variety of NMDA receptor-mediated central nervous system disorders.
Khan, M., Houck, D., Gross, A., Zhang, X., Cearley, C., Madsen, T., Kroes, R., Stanton, P., Burgdorf, J., & Moskal, J. (2018). NYX-2925 Is a Novel NMDA Receptor-Specific Spirocyclic-beta-Lactam That Modulates Synaptic Plasticity Processes Associated with Learning and Memory. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 21 (3), 242-254. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyx096