NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) and Glutaminase (GLS) Both Play a Role in Large Extracellular Vesicles (LEV) Formation in Preclinical LNCaP-C4-2B pprostate Cancer Model of Progressive Metastasis
In the course of studies aimed at the role of oxidative stress in the development of metastatic potential in the LNCaP-C4-2B prostate cancer progression model system, we found a relative decrease in the level of expression of the cytoplasmic nicotinamide riboside: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO2) and an increase in the oxidative stress in C4-2B cells compared to that in LNCaP or its derivatives C4 and C4-2. It was also found that C4-2B cells specifically shed large extracellular vesicles (LEVs) suggesting that these LEVs and their cargo could participate in the establishment of the osseous metastases. The level of expression of caveolin-1 increased as the system progresses from LNCaP to C4-2B. Since NQO2 RNA levels were not changed in LNCaP, C4, C4-2, and C4-2B, we tested an altered cellular distribution hypothesis of NQO2 being compartmentalized in the membrane fractions of C4-2B cells which are rich in lipid rafts and caveolae. This was confirmed when the detergent resistant membrane fractions were probed on immunoblots. Moreover, when the LEVs were analyzed for membrane associated caveolin-1 as possible cargo, we noticed that the enzyme NQO2 was also a component of the cargo along with caveolin-1 as seen in double immunofluorescence studies. Molecular modeling studies showed that a caveolin-1 accessible site is present in NQO2. Specific interaction between NQO2 and caveolin-1 was confirmed using deletion constructs of caveolin-1 fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST). Interestingly, whole cell lysate and mitochondrial preparations of LNCaP, C4, C4-2, and C4-2B showed an increasing expression of glutaminase (GLS, kidney type). The extrusion of LEVs appears to be a specific property of the bone metastatic C4-2B cells and this process could be inhibited by a GLS specific inhibitor BPTES, suggesting the critical role of a functioning glutamine metabolism. Our results indicate that a high level of expression of caveolin-1 in C4-2B cells contributes to an interaction between caveolin-1 and NQO2 and to their packaging as cargo in the shed LEVs. These results suggest an important role of membrane associated oxidoreductases in the establishment of osseous metastases in prostate cancer.
Dorai, T., Shah, A., Summers, F., Mathew, R., Huang, J., Hsieh, T., & Wu, J. (2018). NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) and Glutaminase (GLS) Both Play a Role in Large Extracellular Vesicles (LEV) Formation in Preclinical LNCaP-C4-2B pprostate Cancer Model of Progressive Metastasis. The Prostate, 78 (15), 1181-1195. https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.23693