Ablation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Reprogram White Fat to Beige-Like Fat Through an Increase in Mitochondrial Integrity, HO-1-Adiponectin in vitro and in vivo
We have shown that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), specifically 11,12- and 14,15-EETs, reduce adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells and mouse preadipocytes (3T-3L1). In this study, we explore the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) deletion on various aspects of adipocyte-function, including programing for white vs. beige-like fat, and mitochondrial and thermogenic gene-expressions. We further hypothesize that EETs and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) form a synergistic, functional module whose effects on adipocyte and vascular function is greater than the effects of sEH deletion alone. In in vitro studies, we examined the effect of sEH inhibitors on MSC-derived adipocytes. MSC-derived adipocytes exposed to AUDA, an inhibitor of sEH, exhibit an increased number of small and healthy adipocytes, an effect reproduced by siRNA for sEH. in vivo studies indicate that sEH deletion results in a significant decrease in adipocyte size, inflammatory adipokines NOV, TNFalpha, while increasing adiponectin (p < 0.05). These findings are associated with a decrease in body weight (p < 0.05), and visceral fat (p < 0.05). Importantly, sEH deletion was associated with a significant increase in Mfn1, COX 1, UCP1 and adiponectin (p < 0.03). sEH deletion was manifested by a significant increase in EETs isomers 5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET and an increased EETs/DHETEs ratio. Notably, activation of HO-1 gene expression further increased the levels of EETs, suggesting that the antioxidant HO-1 system protects EETs from degradation by ROS. These results are novel in that sEH deletion, while increasing EET levels, resulted in reprograming of white fat to express mitochondrial and thermogenic genes, a phenotype characteristic of beige-fat. Thus, EETs agonist(s) and sEH inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and obesity.
Liu, L., Puri, N., Raffaele, M., Schragenheim, J., Singh, S., Bradbury, J., Bellner, L., Vanella, L., Zeldin, D., Cao, J., & Abraham, N. (2018). Ablation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Reprogram White Fat to Beige-Like Fat Through an Increase in Mitochondrial Integrity, HO-1-Adiponectin in vitro and in vivo. Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, 138, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2018.07.004