NYMC Faculty Publications

Title

Prospective Assessment of Patients with Stroke in Tikur Anbessa Specialised Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

March 2018

Department

Emergency Medicine

Abstract

Introduction: The burden of stroke is increasing in many low- and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, stroke has become a major cause of morbidity, long-term disability, and mortality. Time from stroke onset to hospital presentation is a critical factor in acute stroke care. This study aimed to describe risk factors for stroke and clinical presentation of patients presenting to the emergency centre with stroke. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study conducted from August 2015 to January 2016 in an urban tertiary care centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between stroke types and stroke risk factors, and delayed presentation and clinical indicators. P-values less than .05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 104 patients were included. The mean age was 53years, and 56% were male. Only 30% of patients arrived using an ambulance service. The most common presenting symptoms were altered mental status (48%), hemiparesis (47%), facial palsy (45%), hemiplegia (29%), and aphasia (25%). Hypertension was the most common risk factor (49%), followed by cardiovascular disease (20.2%) and diabetes mellitus (11%). The majority of strokes were haemorrhagic in aetiology (56%). The median arrival time to the emergency centre was 24h after symptoms onset; only 15% presented within three hours. Patients with hypertension, or presented with loss of consciousness were significantly more likely to have haemorrhagic stroke (p<.001 and p=.01 respectively). The only risk factor robustly associated with ischaemic stroke was cardiac illness (odds ratio 3.99, p=.01). Discussion: Our study identified hypertension to be the most common risk factor for stroke. The predominant aetiology type in this cohort is haemorrhagic stroke. Lastly, the median arrival time to an emergency centre was 24h after symptom onset.

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