Cardiogenic Shock During Heart Failure Hospitalizations: Age-, Sex-, and Race-Stratified Trends in Incidence and Outcomes
The objectives were to study the overall and age-, sex-, and race-stratified incidence of cardiogenic shock (CS) during heart failure hospitalizations (HFHs) not complicated by acute coronary syndromes (ACS), utilization of short-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) and in-hospital mortality with non-ACS-related CS, and respective temporal trends. Data are lacking regarding the epidemiology of non-ACS-related CS during HFHs. METHODS: Retrospective observational analysis of the National Inpatient Sample 2005-2014 to identify all HFHs in adult patients without concomitant ACS. RESULTS: Of 8,333,752 HFHs, incidence rate of non-ACS-related CS was 8.7 per thousand HFHs (N=72,668), a 4-fold increase from 4.1 to 15.6 per thousand HFHs between 2005 and 2014 (Ptrend <.001). Among those with non-ACS-related CS, utilization rates of intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and temporary ventricular assist devices were 12.8%, 1.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. Respective 2005 to 2014 trends were 14.2% to 10.7%, 0.6% to 1.8%, and 0.8% to 2.7% (Ptrend for all, <.001). In-hospital mortality rate was 27.1%, with a substantial decrease from 42.4% in 2005 to 23.3% in 2014 (Ptrend <.001). These temporal trends were largely consistent across age, sex, and race subgroups. CONCLUSION: During HFHs in the United States, non-ACS-related CS occurred infrequently but was associated with substantial mortality. Non-ACS-related CS incidence and certain MCS utilization rates increased, and in-hospital mortality rate decreased between 2005 and 2014. These trends were generally homogenous across the age, sex, and race groups. The observed trends in incidence and mortality may be a reflection of increased identification of CS during HFHs, although further study is needed to assess whether temporal changes in care may have influenced outcomes.
Yandrapalli, S., Sanaani, A., Harikrishnan, P., Aronow, W., Frishman, W., Lanier, G., Ahmed, A., & Fonarow, G. (2019). Cardiogenic Shock During Heart Failure Hospitalizations: Age-, Sex-, and Race-Stratified Trends in Incidence and Outcomes. American Heart Journal, 213, 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.03.015