NYMC Faculty Publications


Differential Mucosal Gene Expression Patterns in Candida-Associated, Chronic Oral Denture Stomatitis

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February 2019


Microbiology and Immunology


PURPOSE: Denture stomatitis is a common condition manifested by inflammation of the oral mucous membrane beneath a denture. The objective of this study was to compare the transcriptome of human palatal mucosa with chronic oral stomatitis-associated Candida albicans infection to that of healthy oral mucosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral palatal biopsies were obtained from 17 healthy and 15 C. albicans-infected stomatitis subjects for whole transcriptome analyses. The presence of C. albicans was confirmed by cytology and cultivable methods. The clinical severity of the stomatitis was evaluated by the Newton Classification (Class II or III). For transcriptome analyses a false discovery rate (FDR) of 2-fold, and 71 genes were down-regulated >2-fold. Five of the 6 most significant gene ontology pathways involve inflammation and activation of the immune response with CD28 and CTLA signaling of T cells. There was strong up-regulation of TLR2, CD14, MYD88, IKKA, and NFKB as the dominant toll-like receptor-signaling pathway. The expression of several extracellularly expressed inflammatory protein genes was up-regulated in candidiasis, and 2 were confirmed as up-regulated within the saliva using protein multiplexing analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophil recruitment and activation, epithelial suppression, and T-cell activation appear as major pathways in chronic oral candidiasis. Tissue up-regulation of TLR2 pathways, as well as potential C. albicans binding proteins, was observed, whereas keratin and adhesion molecule synthesis were down-regulated. Several candidate biomarkers to potentially identify the presence of oral candidiasis were differentially expressed in tissues and saliva.