NYMC Faculty Publications


Contemporary Trends in Percutaneous Nephrolithomy Across New York State: A Review of the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System

Document Type


Publication Date

July 2019




Introduction and Objectives: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a complex multistep surgery that has shown a steady increase in use for the past decade in the United States. We sought to evaluate the trends and factors associated with PCNL usage across New York State (NYS). Our goal was to characterize patient demographics and socioeconomic factors across high-, medium-, and low-volume institutions. Materials and Methods: We searched the NYS, Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database from 2006 to 2014 using ICD-9 Procedure Codes 55.04 (percutaneous nephrostomy with fragmentation) for all hospital discharges. Patient demographics including age, gender, race, insurance status, and length of hospital stay were obtained. We characterized each hospital as a low-, medium-, or high-volume center by year. Patient and hospital demographics were compared and reported using chi-square analysis and Student's t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively, with statistical significance as a p-value of <0.05. Results: We identified a total of 4576 procedures performed from 2006 to 2014 at a total of 77 hospitals in NYS (Table 1). Total PCNL volume performed across all NYS hospitals increased in the past decade, with the greatest number of procedures performed in 2012 to 2013. Low-volume institutions were more likely to provide care to minority populations (21.4% vs 17.3%, p < 0.001) and those with Medicaid (25.5% vs 21.5%, p < 0.001). High-volume institutions provided care to patients with private insurance (42.1% vs 34.0%, p < 0.001) and had a shorter length of stay (3.3 days vs 4.1 days, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our data provide insight into the patient demographics of those treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals for PCNL across NYS. Significant differences in race, insurance status, and length of stay were noted between low- and high-volume institutions, indicating that racial and socioeconomic factors play a role in access to care at high-volume centers.