Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Young - National Trend Analysis with Gender-Based Difference in Outcomes
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INTRODUCTION: Although acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a disease predominantly affecting adults >60 years of age, a significant proportion of the young population who have different risk profiles, are also affected. We undertook a retrospective analysis using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2010 to 2014 to evaluate gender differences in characteristics, treatments, and outcomes in the younger AMI population.
METHODS: The NIS 2010-2014 was used to identify all patient hospitalizations with AMI between 18 tomortality, other complications, and revascularization strategies in the overall AMI population and other subgroups of AMI [anterior wall ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), and non-anterior wall STEMI and non-STEMI (NSTEMI)].
RESULTS: A total of 156,018 weighted records of AMI hospitalizations were identified, of which 111,894 were men and 44,124 were women. Young women had a higher prevalence of anemia, chronic lung disease, obesity, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes. Conversely, young men had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, smoking, and alcohol. Among non-traditional risk factors, women had a higher prevalence of depression and rheumatologic/collagen vascular disease. There was no difference in all-cause in-hospital mortality in women compared to men [2.03% vs 1.48%; OR 1.04, CI (0.84-1.29); P = .68], including in subgroup analysis of NSTEMI, anterior wall STEMI, and non-anterior wall STEMI. Women with AMI were less likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention [47.13% vs 61.17%; OR 0.66, 95% CI (0.62-0.70; P < .001] and coronary artery bypass grafting [5.6% vs 6.0%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.83; P < .001] compared to men. Women were also less likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention within 24 h of presentation (38.47% vs 51.42%, P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Despite higher baseline comorbidities in young women with AMI, there was no difference in in-hospital mortality in women compared to men. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the impact of gender on clinical presentation, treatment patterns, and outcomes of AMI in young patients.