Glycocalyx in Endotoxemia and Sepsis
Along with the recognition of a crucial role played by endothelial dysfunction secondarily igniting cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal complications, investigational focus has extended toward endothelial glycocalyx. This delicate coating of cells, including the vascular endothelium, regulates permeability, leukocyte traffic, nitric oxide production, and coagulation, and harbors diverse growth and survival factors. In this brief overview, we discuss the metabolic signatures of sepsis as they relate to the loss of glycocalyx integrity and highlight the contribution of several proteases, heparanase, and hyaluronidase to the shedding of glycocalyx. Clinical manifestations of glycocalyx degradation in unraveling acute respiratory distress syndrome and the cardiovascular, microcirculatory, and renal complications of sepsis are concisely presented. Finally, we list therapeutic strategies for preventing the degradation of, and for restoration of, the glycocalyx.
Goligorsky, M., & Sun, D. (2020). Glycocalyx in Endotoxemia and Sepsis. The American Journal of Pathology, 190 (4), 791-798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2019.06.017