Survival and Right Ventricular Function After Surgical Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism
Research Article Published in Journal with Highest Impact Factor for NYMC First Author (Journal Citation Reports 2020)
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality because of right ventricular (RV) failure. There is evidence suggesting surgical therapy (surgical embolectomy or venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]) is safe and effective.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of surgical management of acute PE.
METHODS: Surgical embolectomy and/or venoarterial ECMO were compared, between 2005 and 2019, for massive PE (MPE) versus high-risk submassive PE (SMPE). RV recovery was defined as improvements in central venous pressure, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, RV/left ventricular ratio, and RV fractional area change.
RESULTS: One hundred thirty-six patients with PE (92 with SMPE and 44 with MPE) were identified. Patients with MPE more often presented with syncope (59.1% [26 of 44] vs. 25.0% [23 of 92]; p = 0.0003), Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤4 (22.7% [10 of 44] vs. 0% [0 of 92]), and failed thrombolysis (18.2% [8 of 44] vs. 4.3% [3 of 92]; p = 0.008). Pre-operative cardiopulmonary resuscitation occurred in 43.2% of patients with MPE (19 of 44). Most patients with SMPE were treated with embolectomy (98.9% [91 of 92]), while ECMO was used more in those with MPE (ECMO in 40.9% [18 of 44], embolectomy in 59.1% [26 of 44]). RV function improved as measured by central venous pressure (from 23.4 ± 4.9 to 10.5 ± 3.1 mm Hg), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (from 60.6 ± 14.2 to 33.8 ± 10.7 mm Hg), RV/left ventricular ratio (from 1.19 ± 0.33 to 0.87 ± 0.23; p < 0.005), and fractional area change (from 26.8 to 41.0; p < 0.005). Mortality was 4.4% (6 of 136; SMPE, 1.1% [1 of 92]; MPE, 11.6% [5 of 44]). Subgroup analysis showed morbidity and mortality were highly associated with pre-operative cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management of patients with MPE and high-risk SMPE is safe and highly effective at achieving RV recovery.
Goldberg, J., Spevack, D. M., Ahsan, S., Rochlani, Y., Dutta, T., Ohira, S., Kai, M., Spielvogel, D., Lansman, S., & Malekan, R. (2020). Survival and Right Ventricular Function After Surgical Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 76 (8), 903-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.065