NYMC Faculty Publications


Signaling Pathways Involved in the Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Hypertension

First Page


Last Page


Document Type

Review Article

Publication Date





The alveolar and vascular developmental arrest in the premature infants poses a major problem in the management of these infants. Although, with the current management, the survival rate has improved in these infants, but bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious complication associated with a high mortality rate. During the neonatal developmental period, these infants are vulnerable to stress. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, and ventilation injury lead to oxidative and inflammatory stress, which induce further damage in the lung alveoli and vasculature. Development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with BPD worsens the prognosis. Despite considerable progress in the management of premature infants, therapy to prevent BPD is not yet available. Animal experiments have shown deregulation of multiple signaling factors such as transforming growth factorβ (TGFβ), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), caveolin-1, wingless & Int-1 (WNT)/β-catenin, and elastin in the pathogenesis of BPD. This article reviews the signaling pathways entailed in the pathogenesis of BPD associated with PH and the possible management.

This document is currently not available here.