NYMC Faculty Publications


A Contemporary Review of Clostridioides Difficile Infections in Patients with Haematologic Diseases

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Review Article

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Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile (C. difficile) infection is one of the most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality. Approximately 500 000 C. difficile infections (CDIs) occur each year in the United States, and they result in more than 29 000 deaths. Patients with haematologic diseases are at a higher risk for this infection due to frequent hospitalization and exposure to treatment-associated risk factors. Whilst several currently available antimicrobial agents offer resolution, recurrence of infection remains a major concern. Recent advancement in deciphering C. difficile virulence mechanisms and identification of its allies in contributing to the infection has led to the development of alternative treatment strategies. Here, we will provide a contemporary discussion of how major risk factors in haematologic diseases, such as immunosuppression, chemoradiation, use of antibiotic, proton pump inhibitor and opioid, and deficiency in butyrate and antimicrobial peptides contribute to C. difficile infection. Next, we will highlight different approaches to control and mitigate this infection such as antibiotic stewardship and faecal microbiota transplantation. Finally, we will explore several emerging treatments such as use of pre- and probiotics, immunotherapy and microbiome-sparing agents.