Low Birth Weight Is Associated with Impaired Murine Kidney Development And Function
BackgroundLow birth weight (LBW) neonates have impaired kidney development that leaves them susceptible to kidney disease and hypertension during adulthood. The study here identifies events that blunt nephrogenesis and kidney development in the murine LBW neonate.MethodsWe examined survival, kidney development, GFR, gene expression, and cyto-/chemokines in the LBW offspring of malnourished (caloric and protein-restricted) pregnant mice.ResultsMalnourished pregnant mothers gave birth to LBW neonates that had 40% reduced body weight and 54% decreased survival. Renal blood perfusion was reduced by 37%, whereas kidney volume and GFR were diminished in the LBW neonate. During gestation, the LBW neonatal kidney had 2.2-fold increased apoptosis, 76% decreased SIX2+. progenitor cells, downregulation of mesenchymal-to-epithelial signaling factors Wnt9b and Fgf8, 64% less renal vesicle formation, and 32% fewer nephrons than controls. At birth, increased plasma levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12(p70), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the LBW neonate reduced SIX2+. progenitor cells.ConclusionIncreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LBW neonate decrease SIX2+. stem cells in the developing kidney. Reduced renal stem cells (along with the decreased mesenchymal-to-epithelial signaling) blunt renal vesicle generation, nephron formation, and kidney development. Subsequently, the mouse LBW neonate has reduced glomeruli volume, renal perfusion, and GFR.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 31 May 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.53.
Barnett, C., Nnoli, O., Abdulmahdi, W., Nesi, L., Shen, M., Zullo, J., Payne, D., Azar, T., Dwivedi, P., Syed, K., Gromis, J., Lipphardt, M., Jules, E., Maranda, E., Patel, A., Rabadi, M., & Ratliff, B. (2017). Low Birth Weight Is Associated with Impaired Murine Kidney Development And Function. Pediatric Research, 82 (2), 340-348. https://doi.org/10.1038/pr.2017.53