NYMC Faculty Publications


Deutetrabenazine for Tardive Dyskinesia: A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety Profile for This Newly Approved Novel Medication-What Is the Number Needed to Treat, Number Needed to Harm and Likelihood to Be Helped or Harmed?

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Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences


OBJECTIVE: Deutetrabenazine is a deuterated formulation of tetrabenazine. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the efficacy, tolerability and safety of deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD). DATA SOURCES: The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, for the search terms 'deutetrabenazine' OR 'SD-809', and by also querying the EMBASE (Elsevier) commercial database for clinical poster abstracts, and by asking the manufacturer for copies of posters presented at congresses. Product labelling provided additional information. STUDY SELECTION: All available clinical reports of studies were identified. DATA EXTRACTION: Descriptions of the principal results and calculation of number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) for relevant dichotomous outcomes were extracted from the available study reports and other sources of information. DATA SYNTHESIS: Deutetrabenazine, a reversible inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2), received approval for the treatment of TD in adults based on a clinical trial development programme that included two 12-week parallel group, randomised and placebo-controlled studies. Deutetrabenazine dose is determined individually for each patient based on reduction of TD and tolerability. The recommended starting dose of deutetrabenazine for TD is 6 mg BID, administered with food, and can be increased at weekly intervals in increments of 6 mg/day to a maximum recommended daily dosage of 24 mg BID. The percentage of responders in the fixed-dose Phase III acute study, as defined by a rating of "much improved" or "very much improved" on the clinical global impression of change, was 46% for deutetrabenazine (pooled dose groups 12 and 18 mg BID) vs 26% for placebo, yielding a NNT of 5 (95% CI 3-19); the percentage of responders as defined by an improvement in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) severity score (sum of items 1-7) of 50% or more, was 34% for deutetrabenazine (pooled dose groups 12 and 18 mg BID) vs 12% for placebo, yielding a NNT of 5 (95% CI 3-11). Pooling the data across both short-term studies, NNT for AIMS response for the therapeutic doses of deutetrabenazine vs placebo was 7 (95% CI 4-18). Discontinuation because of an adverse event occurred among 3.6% of patients randomised to deutetrabenazine (any dose) vs 3.1% for placebo, yielding a NNH of 189 (not significant). The Likelihood to be Helped or Harmed comparing success (AIMS response) vs discontinuation because of an adverse event is 27. The most common adverse reactions (that occurred in >/=4% of deutetrabenazine-treated patients with TD and greater than placebo) were nasopharyngitis and insomnia, with NNH values of 50 (not significant) and 34 (95% CI 18-725), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Deutetrabenazine is the second FDA-approved agent specifically indicated for the treatment of TD. Head-to-head comparisons with other VMAT2 inhibitors among patients with TD in the "real world" are needed.