Redox Mechanisms Influencing cGMP Signaling in Pulmonary Vascular Physiology and Pathophysiology
The soluble form of guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP signaling are major regulators of pulmonary vasodilation and vascular remodeling that protect the pulmonary circulation from hypertension development. Nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, thiol and heme redox, and heme biosynthesis control mechanisms regulating the production of cGMP by sGC. In addition, a cGMP-independent mechanism regulates protein kinase G through thiol oxidation in manner controlled by peroxide metabolism and NADPH redox. Multiple aspects of these regulatory processes contribute to physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the pulmonary circulation, and create potentially novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of pulmonary vascular disease.