Rita Fisher

Publication Date


Document Type



Master of Arts in Education (MA)

MA Concentration

Teaching Mathematics


Pamela A. Redmond, Jim O'Connor


California middle school mathematics content standards are not being met by many students. These students lack basic arithmetic skills such as place value, subtracting with regrouping, multi-digit multiplication and division, recognizing decimals place value, and solving word problems. Meeting the standards is a daunting task for both teachers and students. These deficits reflect a lack of understanding of number sense and mathematical reasoning. This project sought to find effective teaching strategies to help increase student understanding of mathematics concepts. A number of research studies indicated that teaching reading in mathematics will help students read mathematical English. Guiding students to learn how to write mathematics will help them construct their own mathematical understanding. Teaching students how to express their own knowledge of mathematics and make sense of mathematics will improve their conceptual understanding and improve achievement outcomes.