Publication Date


Document Type



Master of Arts in Education (MA)

MA Concentration

Special Education Autism Spectrum Disorder


Traumatic Brain-injury, school interventions, strategies, poverty, prevalence, short-term outcome, long-term outcome


Linda Haymes, Pamela A. Redmond, Jim O'Connor


It is estimated that more than 1 million children and adolescents sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) every year. It is usually the result from events such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and other incidental blows to the head. According to Schilling and Getch (2012) TBI is often cited as the leading cause of disability in children (CDC, 2010b). Epidemiological data indicate that 3,000 children and adolescents die from TBI, 29,000 are hospitalized, and an additional 400,000 are treated in hospital emergency departments annually (CDC, 2010b).

Even with such staggering statistics, Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) remains undetected, misdiagnosed, undiagnosed or never treated. How one is treated for or recovers from such an injury can also be strongly affected by the students' socioeconomic background, ethnicity, education level and family education level. In this manual you will find further review of several themes pertaining to TBI: The prevalence of TBI; the description of the types of TBI; its general impact at school; treatments (best practices) for children; short-and long term outcomes.