Additional Author Affiliation

Touro College

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 3-29-2017


Microbiology and Immunology

Second Department



This work lays the foundation for investigation into the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer. It is the first study to show the potential link between androgen, androgen receptor, and the immune checkpoint molecule, PD-L1. Androgen may provide a protective advantage in males against thyroid cancer by decreasing PD-L1 expression thereby allowing T cell infiltration and elimination of tumors, and could potentially offer an explanation as to the lower thyroid cancer incidence in men. Higher expression levels of PD-L1 in female thyroid cancer patients may indicate an opportunity for sex-based therapeutics.


Please see the work itself for the complete list of authors.



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