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Background: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia.

Methods: In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15–17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire. The level of preparedness was determined using a pre-existing scale, and adolescents were categorized as having a high- or low level of preparedness for transition. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.

Results: Of 223 adolescents, 55.2% were male, and their mean age was 15.8 years. Overall, 53.3% had a high level of preparedness for transition. As part of the transition protocol, 2.7% had completed a transfer form, 24.7% had a transition case manager, 29.6% had been counselled about the transition, and 19.7% had visited an adult ART clinic. In multivariate analysis, a higher level of preparedness for transition was independently associated with older age (AOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.34–4.46; p = 0.004), family having received social support for their health (AOR 5.32, 95% CI 1.97–14.36; p = 0.001), knowing the kind of treatment they received (ART) (AOR 12.67, 95% CI 2.91–15.19; p = 0.001), trust in friends or family for HIV treatment (AOR 7.82, 95% CI 1.13–8.89; p = 0.008), receiving counseling on transition (AOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.15–8.76; p = 0.03), having a ‘Case Manager’ identified to support them during the preparation process for transition (AOR 3.89, 95% CI 1.08–13.96; p = 0.04), and satisfaction with preparation process for transition in general (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.03–0.87; p = 0.01).

Conclusions: A range of individual, social and health system and services factors may determine successful transition preparedness among adolescents in Cambodia. Strengthening implementation of age-appropriate and individualized case management transition at all sites, while creating supportive family, peer, and healthcare environments for adolescent transition is required.


Please see the work itself for the complete list of authors.

Publisher's Statement

Originally published in AIDS Research and Therapy, 14 [Article 33]. Licensed under CC BY 4.0.


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