The Gender-Based Outcome in the Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion With the Watchman Device: A Longitudinal Nationwide Inpatient Sample Analysis

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Introduction: Compared to men, women have an increased risk of having a stroke, cardiovascular disease, and death. It requires continuous anticoagulation use based on CHA2DS2-VASc scores for stroke prevention. The Watchman device is indicated for patients with non-valvular AF at high risk of stroke who have contraindications to long-term anticoagulation use. We sought to determine the periprocedural outcome difference based on gender in the patients undergoing watchman device implantation.

Methods: National Inpatient Sample databases from 2016 to 2018 were utilized using Stata 16.0. NIS databases are the ICD-10-CM code-based largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database. Patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent the watchman procedure were identified; later divided and compared based on gender. Multivariate logistic regression, linear regression, and student t-t-tests were used for analysis. Data were further analyzed after greedy propensity matching for accuracy.

Results: Out of 33,825 patients who had the procedure, 14,105 (41.8%) were female, and 19,690 (58.2%) were male. The mean age for women and men were 76.5±7.5 and 75.6±8.1 respectively. Co-morbidities such as DM, CAD, CKD, PVD, and history of CABG were more in men, whereas anemia and pulmonary hypertension were more in women. Mortalities in women were 30 whereas it was 26 in men. There was no difference in mortality on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Complications such as pericardial drain and major bleeding requiring blood transfusion were higher in women. There was no difference in pericardial complications, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and AKI. The overall mean LOS and cost per hospitalization were higher in women.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing watchman procedure showed no difference in periprocedural mortality between men and women; however, women had high events of pericardial drainage and major bleeding requiring blood transfusion.