Developmental and Sex Differences in Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT)-Induced Syndrome in Rats
Environmental Health Science
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a synthetic neurotoxic rodenticide considered a chemical threat agent. Symptoms of intoxication include seizures leading to status epilepticus and death. While children and women have been often the victims, no studies exist investigating the neurotoxic effects of TMDT in developing individuals or females. Thus, we performed such an investigation in developing Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes in order to identify potential age- or sex-dependent vulnerability to TMDT exposure. Subcutaneous injection was chosen as the preferred route of TMDT exposure. EEG recordings confirmed the seizure activity observed in both postnatal day 15 (P15) and adult rats. Additionally, P15 rats displayed greater sensitivity to TMDT than postnanatal day 25 or adult animals. Seizures were generally more severe in females compared to males. Barrel rotations accompanied convulsions in P25 and adult, but sparsely in P15 rats. Adults developed barrel rolling less frequently than P25 population. Neuronal cell death was not present in 24-h TMDT survivors at any age or sex tested. A seizure rechallenge with flurothyl 7 days following TMDT exposure demonstrated longer latencies to the first clonic seizure but a faster progression into the tonic-clonic seizure in P15 and adult survivors as compared to their vehicle-injected counterparts. In conclusion, the youngest age group represents the most vulnerable population to the TMDT-induced toxidrome. Females appear to be more vulnerable than males. TMDT exposure promotes seizure spread and progression in survivors. These findings will help to establish sex- and age-specific treatment strategies for TMDT-exposed individuals. (c) 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 403-416, 2018.
Laukova, M., Veliskova, J., Velisek, L., & Shakarjian, M. (2018). Developmental and Sex Differences in Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT)-Induced Syndrome in Rats. Developmental Neurobiology, 78 (4), 403-416. https://doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22582