NYMC Faculty Publications

First Page


Document Type


Publication Date





Purpose: A phase 3 randomized study (COG ANBL0032) demonstrated significantly improved outcome by adding immunotherapy with ch14.18 antibody to isotretinoin as post-consolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (NB). This study, ANBL0931, was designed to collect FDA-required safety/toxicity data to support FDA registration of ch14.18. Experimental design: Newly diagnosed high-risk NB patients who achieved at least a partial response to induction therapy and received myeloablative consolidation with stem cell rescue were enrolled to receive six courses of isotretinoin with five concomitant cycles of ch14.18 combined with GM-CSF or IL2. Ch14.18 infusion time was 10-20 h per dose. Blood was collected for cytokine analysis and its association with toxicities and outcome. Results: Of 105 patients enrolled, five patients developed protocol-defined unacceptable toxicities. The most common grade >/= 3 non-hematologic toxicities of immunotherapy for cycles 1-5, respectively, were neuropathic pain (41, 28, 22, 31, 24%), hypotension (10, 17, 4, 14, 8%), allergic reactions (ARs) (3, 10, 5, 7, 2%), capillary leak syndrome (1, 4, 0, 2, 0%), and fever (21, 59, 6, 32, 5%). The 3-year event-free survival and overall survival were 67.6 +/- 4.8% and 79.1 +/- 4.2%, respectively. AR during course 1 was associated with elevated serum levels of IL-1Ra and IFNgamma, while severe hypotension during this course was associated with low IL5 and nitrate. Higher pretreatment CXCL9 level was associated with poorer event-free survival (EFS). Conclusion: This study has confirmed the significant, but manageable treatment-related toxicities of this immunotherapy and identified possible cytokine biomarkers associated with select toxicities and outcome. EFS and OS appear similar to that previously reported on ANBL0032.


Complete list of authors: Mehmet Ozkaynak, Andrew L. Gilman, Wendy B. London, Arlene Naranjo, Mitchell B. Diccianni, Sheena C. Tenney, Malcolm Smith, Karen S. Messer, Robert Seeger, C. Patrick Reynolds, L. Mary Smith, Barry L. Shulkin, Marguerite Parisi, John M. Maris, Julie R. Park, Paul M. Sondel, Alice L. Yu

Publisher's Statement

Originally published in Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 1355. The original material can be found here.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.