Sirtuins (SIRT) are ubiquitous histone and protein deacetylases and a member of this family, SIRT1, is the best-studied one. Its functions in endothelial cells encompass branching angiogenesis, activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, regulation of proapoptotic and proinflammatory pathways, among others. Defective SIRT1 activity has been described in various cardiovascular, renal diseases and in aging-associated conditions. Therefore, understanding of SIRT1-deficient, endothelial dysfunctional phenotype has much to offer clinically. Here, we summarize recent studies by several investigative teams of the characteristics of models of global endothelial SIRT1 deficiency, the causes of facilitative development of fibrosis in these conditions, dissect the protein composition of the aberrant secretome of SIRT1-deficient endothelial cells and present several components of this aberrant secretome that are involved in fibrogenesis via activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. These include ligands of Wnt and Notch pathways, as well as proteolytic fragments of glycocalyx core protein, syndecan-4. The latter finding is crucial for understanding the degradation of glycocalyx that accompanies SIRT1 deficiency. This spectrum of abnormalities associated with SIRT1 deficiency in endothelial cells is essential for understanding the origins and features of endothelial dysfunction in a host of cardiovascular and renal diseases.
Lipphardt, M., Dihazi, H., Muller, G., & Goligorsky, M. (2018). Fibrogenic Secretome of Sirtuin 1-Deficient Endothelial Cells: Wnt, Notch and Glycocalyx Rheostat. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 1325. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01325
Originally published in Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 1325. The original material can be found here.
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