Isolated Intraventricular Hemorrhage Associated with Cerebral Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia following Arteriovenous Malformation Rupture
Background: Although it is well characterized in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm is exceedingly rare following cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture. Subsequently, this complication is poorly characterized with regard to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). We review cases of ruptured AVM to assess the frequency and severity of vasospasm on cerebral angiography, and DCI. Summary: We reviewed our institutional database of acute intracranial hemorrhages between 2005 and 2014. We identified patients with cerebral AVM rupture and evidence of vasospasm, which was confirmed with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Cerebral angiograms were evaluated by 2 blinded neurointerventionalists for vasospasm. Statistical analyses were conducted on the angiographic results and variables of interest to determine predictors and associations of vasospasm and DCI. Thirty-six patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral AVM subsequently underwent cerebral angiography. The interrater reliability for vasospasm was 0.81. The incidence of vasospasm was 13.9% and the incidence of subsequent DCI was 11.1%. A significant relationship existed between isolated intraventricular hemorrhage and vasospasm (p = 0.001) and subsequent DCI (p = 0.006). Radiographic vasospasm was associated with DCI in 80% of the patients (p<0.0001). No statistical significance existed between subarachnoid hemorrhage and the development of vasospasm or DCI (p = 1.000 and p = 0.626, respectively). All differences were significant at a 99% level of significance. Key Message: In cases of ruptured AVM, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage appears to be an independent risk factor for vasospasm and DCI. Vasospasm must be considered during late neurological deterioration following AVM hemorrhage, especially in the setting of isolated intraventricular hemorrhage.
Amuluru, K., Al-Mufti, F., Romero, C., & Gandhi, C. (2018). Isolated Intraventricular Hemorrhage Associated with Cerebral Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia following Arteriovenous Malformation Rupture. Interventional Neurology, 7 (6), 479-489. https://doi.org/10.1159/000490583