NYMC Faculty Publications

Document Type


Publication Date



Microbiology and Immunology


Angiogenesis, a highly regulated process, is exploited by tumors like breast cancer to ensure a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients and is key for tumor survival and progression. Estrogen and alcohol independently have been observed to contribute to angiogenesis in breast cancer but their combinatorial effects have never been evaluated. The exact mechanism by which estrogen and alcohol contribute to breast cancer angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we defined the in vitro effects of the combination of estrogen and alcohol in breast cancer angiogenesis using the tubulogenesis and scratch wound assays. Conditioned media, generated by culturing the murine mammary cancer cell line, TG1-1, in estrogen and ethanol, enhanced tubule formation and migration as well as modulated the MAP Kinase pathway in the murine endothelial cell line, SVEC4-10. Additionally, estrogen and ethanol in combination enhanced the expression of the pro-angiogenic factors VEGF, MMP-9, and eNOS, and modulated Akt activation. These observations suggest that TG1-1 cells secrete pro-angiogenic molecules in response to the combination of estrogen and ethanol that modulate the morphological and migratory properties of endothelial cells. The data presented in this study, is the first in attempting to link the cooperative activity between estrogen and ethanol in breast cancer progression, underscoring correlations first made by epidemiological observations linking the two.

Publisher's Statement

Originally published in Journal of Cancer, 9(21), 3874-3885. The original material can be found here.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License