PARP-1 Inhibition Protects the Diabetic Heart Through Activation of SIRT1-PGC-1alpha Axis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) follows impaired glucose tolerance in obesity and is frequently associated with hypertension, causing adverse myocardial remodelling and leading to heart failure. The DNA bound protein PARP (poly ADP ribose) polymerase catalyses a post translational modification (polymerization of negatively charged ADP-ribose chains) of nuclear proteins. PARP-1 activation is NAD(+) dependent and takes part in DNA repair and in chromatin remodelling and has a function in transcriptional regulation, intracellular trafficking and energy metabolism. PARP-1 is activated in diabetic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that PARP-1 inhibition in diabetic mice may protect cardiomyocytes from inflammation and ROS production. METHODS: Obese Leptin resistant (db/db) mice suffering from DM2, were treated with angiotensin II (AT) for 4 weeks to enhance the development of cardiomyopathy. Mice were concomitantly treated with the PARP-1 inhibitor INO1001. Neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to high levels of glucose (33mM) with or without AT were treated with INO1001. or with SIRT inhibitor (EX-527) in the presence of INO1001 were tested in-vitro. RESULTS: The in-vivo tests show that hearts from AT treated DM2 mice exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and an increase in the inflammatory marker TNFalpha. DM2 mice had an increased oxidative stress, concomitant with elevated PARP-1 activity and reduced Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression. PARP-1 inhibition led to increased SIRT1 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA levels, attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. In-vitro experiments demonstrated that inhibition of PARP-1 in cardiomyocytes exposed to high levels of glucose and AT led to a significant reduction in ROS (P<0.01) which was abolished in the presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor. CONCLUSION: PARP1 inhibitor INO1001 attenuated cardiomyopathic features in diabetic mice through the activation of SIRT1 and its downstream antioxidant defence mechanisms. The results of this study suggest a pivotal role of PARP-1 inhibition in treating diabetic and AT-induced cardiomyopathy.
Waldman, M., Nudelman, V., Shainberg, A., Abraham, N., Kornwoski, R., Aravot, D., Arad, M., & Hochhauser, E. (2018). PARP-1 Inhibition Protects the Diabetic Heart Through Activation of SIRT1-PGC-1alpha Axis. Experimental Cell Research, 373 (1-2), 112-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.10.003