Placement of Ommaya Reservoirs Using Electromagnetic Neuronavigation and Neuroendoscopy: A Retrospective Study with Cost-Benefit Analysis
BACKGROUND: Placement of intraventricular catheters in oncology patients is associated with high complication rates. Placing Ommaya reservoirs with the zero-error precision protocol (ZEPP), a combination of neuronavigation (AxiEM stereotactic navigation) and direct verification of catheter tip placement with a flexible neuroendoscope, is associated with decreased complication rates as a result of increased catheter placement accuracy. However, the ZEPP costs more than traditional methods of catheter placement, and the question of whether this increased accuracy with the ZEPP is cost-effective is unknown. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective chart review of 50 consecutive ommaya reservoir patient placements between 2010 and 2017. Twenty-five ventricular catheters were placed using the ZEPP protocol, and 25 ventricular catheters were placed using only AxiEM stealth navigation. Postoperative catheter accuracy and complication rates were assessed. A cost-benefit analysis was then conducted to determine if the overall cost for placing Ommaya reservoirs with the ZEPP was effective compared with the alternative method of using neuronavigation alone. RESULTS: In the non-ZEPP cohort, 10 of 25 catheters were placed within the optimal location compared with 25 of 25 catheters placed in the ZEPP cohort. Three complications occurred in the non-ZEPP cohort: 2 malpositioned catheters required surgical revision and 1 catheter-related hemorrhage resulted in a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. No complications occurred in the ZEPP cohort. A cost-benefit analysis showed $4784 savings per patient with ZEPP utilization because of the high complication-associated costs. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the ZEPP for verifying ventricular catheter placement in Ommaya reservoirs improved catheter tip accuracy, resulted in lower complication rates, and was more cost-effective when compared with the non-ZEPP cohort, which used only neuronavigation. The ZEPP can be used for ventricular shunt catheter placement to decrease complications and verify catheter tip accuracy in Ommaya or standard ventriculoperitoneal shunts.
Wang, A., Tenner, M., Schmidt, M., & Bowers, C. (2019). Placement of Ommaya Reservoirs Using Electromagnetic Neuronavigation and Neuroendoscopy: A Retrospective Study with Cost-Benefit Analysis. World Neurosurgery, 122, e723-e728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.10.127