NYMC Faculty Publications


Mouse Model of Human Poisonings with Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine: Characterization of the Effect of Exposure Route on Syndrome Outcomes

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June 2019


Environmental Health Science


Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a synthetic neurotoxic rodenticide and potential chemical threat agent. Signs of TMDT poisoning include convulsions which can progress into status epilepticus and death. Although clinical reports clearly show that poisoning via food and drink is the main route of exposure, experimental studies have primarily utilized parenteral routes. Here we used two different modes of oral administration of TMDT and compared the toxic outcomes with two different parenteral routes. Adult male mice were given various doses of TMDT either perorally in peanut butter or cereal pellets, or injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) or subcutaneously (s.c.). All routes produced the complete TMDT syndrome including twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death. However potencies varied with the following rank order: i.p. > s.c. > oral (cereal)>>oral (peanut butter). Our data clearly show that ingestion of TMDT with peanut butter markedly reduces the overall syndrome severity relative to oral exposure via cereals. No significant differences were observed by substituting peanut oil for water as a vehicle for i.p. administered TMDT. In conclusion, high vs low fat food can differentially affect TMDT onset of action, probably due to differences in availability from the gastrointestinal tract. These results should be considered when searching for effective treatments for TMDT poisoning.