Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation With Valvular Heart Disease and Bioprosthetic Heart Valves
OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines endorse the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about their safety and efficacy in valvular heart disease (VHD). Similarly, there is a paucity of data regarding NOACs use in patients with a bioprosthetic heart valve (BPHV). We, therefore, performed a network meta-analysis in the subgroups of VHD and meta-analysis in patients with a BPHV. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane and Embase were searched for randomised controlled trials. Summary effects were estimated by the random-effects model. The outcomes of interest were a stroke or systemic embolisation (SSE), myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiac events, major bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). RESULTS: In patients with VHD, rivaroxaban was associated with more ICH and major bleeding than other NOACs, while edoxaban 30 mg was associated with least major bleeding. Data combining all NOACs showed a significant reduction in SSE, MI and ICH (0.70, [0.57 to 0.85; p<0.001]; 0.70 [0.50 to 0.99; p<0.002]; and 0.46 [0.24 to 0.86; p<0.01], respectively). Analysis of 280 patients with AF and a BPHV showed similar outcomes with NOACs and warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: NOACs performed better than warfarin for a reduction in SSE, MI and ICH in patients with VHD. Individually NOACs performed similarly to each other except for an increased risk of ICH and major bleeding with rivaroxaban and a reduced risk of major bleeding with edoxaban 30 mg. In patients with a BPHV, results with NOACs seem similar to those with warfarin and this needs to be further explored in larger studies.
Malik, A. H., Yandrapalli, S., Aronow, W., Panza, J., & Cooper, H. (2019). Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation With Valvular Heart Disease and Bioprosthetic Heart Valves. Heart, 105 (18), 1432-1436. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-314767