Three Months of Weekly Rifapentine Plus Isoniazid for Latent Tuberculosis Treatment in Solid Organ Transplant Candidates
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid daily for 9 months is the recommended regimen for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) candidates, but its use is controversial, due to reports of hepatotoxicity and low treatment completion rates. A 12-week course of once weekly directly observed therapy (DOT) with isoniazid plus rifapentine (3HP) is a new LTBI treatment regimen. Tolerability and safety data of 3HP LTBI treatment in SOT candidates are limited.
METHODS: Twelve consecutive SOT candidates who underwent DOT with 3HP for LTBI at Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York, USA, between January 2013 and August 2016 were prospectively evaluated for tolerability and safety of 3HP. The diagnosis of LTBI was made in a person with a positive interferon-gamma release test, without a history of previously treated active or latent tuberculosis infection, and without signs, symptoms, or radiographic evidence of active tuberculosis. Patients were followed up 1 month after treatment completion and at routine follow-up visits with their transplant providers.
RESULTS: Eleven patients were men, and the median age was 60 years (range 44-72). Eight patients were liver, and four kidney transplant candidates. The median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score) was 17 (range 10-31). All patients completed treatment. Only a single patient developed transaminitis greater than twice the baseline value. Three patients underwent liver transplantation. None of them developed tuberculosis at 9, 22, or 40 months following transplantation.
CONCLUSION: Directly observed 3HP LTBI treatment was not associated with hepatotoxicity, even in patients with higher MELD scores. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this LTBI treatment regimen in the SOT population.
Knoll, B. M., Nog, R., Wu, Y., & Dhand, A. (2017). Three Months of Weekly Rifapentine Plus Isoniazid for Latent Tuberculosis Treatment in Solid Organ Transplant Candidates. Infection, 45 (3), 335-339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-017-1004-5
Originally published in Infection, 45(3), 335-339. The original material can be found here.