NYMC Faculty Publications

The Two-Point Technique for Fluoroscopic-Guided Endoscopic Procedures in Urology: A Validation Study

Journal Title

Journal of Endourology

First Page


Last Page


Document Type


Publication Date

September 2019




Introduction: The widespread use of diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation raises concerns regarding excessive occupational and patient exposure. In this study, we test a novel fluoroscopic technique that has the potential to minimize radiation dose during urologic procedures. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of all patients undergoing endoscopic urologic procedures in our institution was conducted. A "two-point technique (TPT)" is described in which the fluoroscope image intensifier (c-arm) is shifted between caudal and cephalad set points of the operative field. We wished to determine whether patient radiation exposure was lower with TPT than with a non-structured conventional technique, referred to as the cognitive fluoroscopic technique (CFT), in which the manipulation of the c-arm was at the discretion of the user. We obtained all clinical, radiographic, and fluoroscopic data of patients in the study period and used unpaired nonparametric statistical analysis of univariates entered stepwise into a logistic regression model. Results: A total of 106 endoscopic urologic procedures from January 2016 to November 2018 were reviewed. Forty-four (41.5%) cases were performed using TPT and 62 (58.5%) using CFT. The mean fluoroscopy time of TPT vs CFT was 71.1 (+/-60.8) seconds vs 104.5 (+/-91.6) seconds, respectively (p = 0.04), and the mean radiation dose on TPT vs CFT was 11.6 (+/-10.6) mGy vs 20.3 (+/-24.3) mGy, respectively (p = 0.03). TPT was an independent predictor of reduced operative room (OR) time and fluoro time (p < 0.05), while body mass index, age, and operator were not. Conclusion: The "TPT" helps reducing radiation dose and fluoroscopic time during endoscopic urologic procedures. The TPT is useful to lower radiation exposure to patients and OR staff.