NYMC Faculty Publications

Inpatient Burden of Esophageal Varices in the United States: Analysis of Rrends in Demographics, Cost of Care, and Outcomes

Journal Title

Annals of Translational Medicine

First Page


Document Type


Publication Date

September 2019




Background: Esophageal variceal bleeding remains a common reason for hospitalization in the United States. The main objective of this study was to analyze demographic variations and outcomes in hospitalizations related to esophageal varices (EV) in the US. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for all hospitalizations with discharge diagnoses of EV, with and without hemorrhage from 2001 to 2011. Results: In 2001, there were 19,167 hospitalizations with discharge diagnoses of EV with and without bleeding compared to 45,578 in 2011 (P<0.001). There was a 138% increase in the number of total EV hospitalizations, a 221% increase in hospitalizations with EV without hemorrhage, and a 7% increase in hospitalizations for patients with EV and hemorrhage. Age group 50-64 was the most affected, accounting for 31.4% of EV hospitalizations in 2001 and 46.7% of EV hospitalizations in 2011 (P<0.001). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 3.4% for patients with EV without hemorrhage and 8.7% for patients with EV with hemorrhage (P=0.0003). Conclusions: The number of hospitalizations for patients with asymptomatic EV increased significantly between 2001 to 2011, with only a small concurrent increase in the number of hospitalizations for patients with esophageal variceal bleeding.