Management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With COVID-19: A Survey From the International Kawasaki Disease Registry
Background: Since April 2020, there have been numerous reports of children presenting with systemic inflammation, often in critical condition, and with evidence of recent infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This condition, since defined as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), is assumed to be a delayed immune response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and there are frequently cardiac manifestations of ventricular dysfunction and/or coronary artery dilation.
Methods: We surveyed the inpatient MIS-C management approaches of the members of the International Kawasaki Disease Registry across 38 institutions and 11 countries.
Results: Among the respondents, 56% reported using immunomodulatory treatment for all MIS-C patients, regardless of presentation. Every respondent reported use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), including 53% administering IVIG in all patients. Steroids were most often used for patients with severe clinical presentation or lack of response to IVIG, and only a minority used steroids in all patients (14%). Acetylsalicylic acid was frequently used among respondents (91%), including anti-inflammatory and/or antiplatelet dosing. Respondents reported use of prophylactic anticoagulation, especially in patients at higher risk for venous thromboembolism, and therapeutic anticoagulation, particularly for patients with giant coronary artery aneurysms.
Conclusions: There is variation in management of MIS-C patients, with suboptimal evidence to assess superiority of the various treatments; evidence-based gaps in knowledge should be addressed through worldwide collaboration to optimize treatment strategies.
Elias, M. D., McCrindle, B. W., Larios, G., Choueiter, N. F., Dahdah, N., Harahsheh, A. S., Jain, S., Manlhiot, C., Portman, M. A., Raghuveer, G., Giglia, T. M., & Dionne, A. (2020). Management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With COVID-19: A Survey From the International Kawasaki Disease Registry. CJC Open, 2 (6), 632-640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.09.004