NYMC Faculty Publications

Management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With COVID-19: A Survey From the International Kawasaki Disease Registry

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Background: Since April 2020, there have been numerous reports of children presenting with systemic inflammation, often in critical condition, and with evidence of recent infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This condition, since defined as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), is assumed to be a delayed immune response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and there are frequently cardiac manifestations of ventricular dysfunction and/or coronary artery dilation.

Methods: We surveyed the inpatient MIS-C management approaches of the members of the International Kawasaki Disease Registry across 38 institutions and 11 countries.

Results: Among the respondents, 56% reported using immunomodulatory treatment for all MIS-C patients, regardless of presentation. Every respondent reported use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), including 53% administering IVIG in all patients. Steroids were most often used for patients with severe clinical presentation or lack of response to IVIG, and only a minority used steroids in all patients (14%). Acetylsalicylic acid was frequently used among respondents (91%), including anti-inflammatory and/or antiplatelet dosing. Respondents reported use of prophylactic anticoagulation, especially in patients at higher risk for venous thromboembolism, and therapeutic anticoagulation, particularly for patients with giant coronary artery aneurysms.

Conclusions: There is variation in management of MIS-C patients, with suboptimal evidence to assess superiority of the various treatments; evidence-based gaps in knowledge should be addressed through worldwide collaboration to optimize treatment strategies.

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