Incidence of Stent Graft Failure from Type IIIB Endoleak in Contemporary Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
BACKGROUND: Type IIIB endoleak from material failure can lead to aneurysmal sac enlargement and latent rupture after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Long-term durability of the endovascular stent graft is largely unknown, and the complication rate from device failure due to material fatigue may be underappreciated. In addition, even with advancement in imaging techniques, recognition of type IIIB endoleak can be challenging, which can lead to delay in intervention.
METHODS: A review of the literature was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar, yielding 23 articles with 46 case reports of type IIIB endoleak from various Food and Drug Administration-approved stent grafts after endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.
RESULTS: The most common location of type IIIB endoleak occurred in the main body (34.8%), followed by the area of the flow divider (32.6%). Sac growth was identified in 63% (29/46) of cases. Diagnosis of the endoleak occurred an average of 54.3 months after the index operation. Endovascular repair was the primary approach for elective repair of type IIIB endoleak (61.3% vs 13.3%). Perioperative mortality was higher in ruptured or symptomatic patients compared with patients undergoing elective repair (33.3% vs 6.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: The actual incidence of type IIIB endoleak is still lacking, and the etiology may be multifactorial. Therefore, suspicion of type IIIB endoleak requires appropriate imaging techniques and prompt intervention to reduce the perioperative mortality rate.
Kwon, J., Dimuzio, P., Salvatore, D., & Abai, B. (2020). Incidence of Stent Graft Failure from Type IIIB Endoleak in Contemporary Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 71 (2), 645-653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.06.183