NYMC Faculty Publications

Replacement Hormone Therapy for Gender Dysphoria and Congenital Sexual Anomalies

Journal Title

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

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Document Type

Review Article

Publication Date



Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology


What is it about sexuality that makes it such a burning matter since the dawn of mankind? Much was lost of humankind heritage because of society's attitude toward sex and gender, but we've made progress. Medical knowledge progressed incredibly and so did social and cultural norms. In these days, on most places on the planet, there is acceptance. Still, gender issues take a center stage, often inflaming the social and political milieu everywhere. So how informed and prepared is the medical community to deal with these issues? Aside from medical treatments, gender dysphoric patients need mental health and social support throughout life. Do we have enough guidelines for treatments that have life-long effects? Do we actually know all of those effects? There are many issues to consider, like fertility preservation, puberty suppression with its adverse effects, and not in the least, the effects of the hormonal therapy on the target tissues.

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