NYMC Faculty Publications

Increasing Frailty Predicts Worse Outcomes and Increased Complications After Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhages

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World Neurosurgery

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BACKGROUND: The effect of frailty on outcomes after angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhages (ANSAH) is currently unknown. We investigated frailty's effects on ANSAH outcomes, including mortality and in-hospital complications.

METHODS: Patients from 2014 to 2018 with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral angiograms with an unidentifiable hemorrhage source were retrospectively reviewed. The cohort was divided into non-frail (modified frailty index [mFI] = 0) and frail (mFI ≥1) groups based on pre-hemorrhage characteristics. Primary outcomes were mortality rate and discharge location. Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined predictors of ANSAH severity and primary endpoints. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to discriminate risks for primary endpoints comparing mFI, Hunt and Hess and Fisher scores, and age.

RESULTS: We included 75 patients with a mean age of 55.4 ± 1.5 years, comprising 42 (56%) women, and 41 (54.7%) with perimesencephalic bleeds. A total of 32 of 75 (42.7%) patients were classified as frail. Frail individuals were 6.2 times less likely to be discharged home (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.5; P = 0.001) and all mortalities occurred in frail patients (12.5% [n = 4 of 32]; P = 0.030). The only independent predictor of mortality was higher mFI (OR = 5.4; 95% CI: 1.5-19.1; P = 0.009), and lower mFI best predicted discharge home (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17-0.88; P = 0.023). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that mFI best predicted both mortality (area under the curve = 0.9718; P = 0.002) and discharge home (area under the curve = 0.7998; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Frail ANSAH patients have poorer outcomes and increased mortality compared with non-frail patients. Although prospective study is needed, this information significantly impacts our understanding of ANSAH outcomes and frailty should be used for prognostication as it was a better predictor than Hunt and Hess or Fisher scores.

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