Akkermansia Muciniphila and Its Pili-Like Protein Amuc_1100 Modulate Macrophage Polarization in Experimental Periodontitis
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease triggered by dysbiosis of the oral microbiome. Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly implicated in periodontal inflammation, gingival tissue destruction, and alveolar bone loss through sustained exacerbation of the host response. Recently, the use of other bacterial species, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, has been suggested to counteract inflammation elicited by P. gingivalis In this study, the effects of A. muciniphila and its pili-like protein Amuc_1100 on macrophage polarization during P. gingivalis infection were evaluated in a murine model of experimental periodontitis. Mice were gavaged with P. gingivalis alone or in combination with A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 for 6 weeks. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the addition of A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 significantly reduced P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. This decreased bone loss was associated with a proresolutive phenotype (M2) of macrophages isolated from submandibular lymph nodes as observed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) at the RNA and protein levels was significantly increased in the gingival tissues of the mice and in macrophages exposed to A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100, confirming their anti-inflammatory properties. This study demonstrates the putative therapeutic interest of the administration of A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 in the management of periodontitis through their anti-inflammatory properties.
Mulhall, H., DiChiara, J. M., Deragon, M., Iyer, R., Huck, O., & Amar, S. (2020). Akkermansia Muciniphila and Its Pili-Like Protein Amuc_1100 Modulate Macrophage Polarization in Experimental Periodontitis. Infection and Immunity, 89 (1), e00500-e00520. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00500-20