Distal Convoluted Tubule Cl - concentration is Modulated via K + Channels and Transporters
Cl--sensitive with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) plays a key role in regulating the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Cl- enters DCT cells through NCC and leaves the cell across the basolateral membrane via the Cl- channel ClC-K2 or K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC). While KCC is electroneutral, Cl- exit via ClC-K2 is electrogenic. Therefore, an alteration in DCT basolateral K+ channel activity is expected to influence Cl- movement across the basolateral membrane. Although a role for intracellular Cl- in the regulation of WNK and NCC has been established, intracellular Cl- concentrations ([Cl-]i) have not been directly measured in the mammalian DCT. Therefore, to measure [Cl-]i in DCT cells, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing an optogenetic kidney-specific Cl-Sensor and measured Cl- fluorescent imaging in the isolated DCT. Basal measurements indicated that the mean [Cl-]i was ~7 mM. Stimulation of Cl- exit with low-Cl- hypotonic solutions decreased [Cl-]i, whereas inhibition of KCC by DIOA or inhibition of ClC-K2 by NPPB increased [Cl-]i, suggesting roles for both KCC and ClC-K2 in the modulation of [Cl-]i . Blockade of basolateral K+ channels (Kir4.1/5.1) with barium significantly increased [Cl-]i. Finally, a decrease in extracellular K+ concentration transiently decreased [Cl-]i, whereas raising extracellular K+ transiently increased [Cl-]i, further suggesting a role for Kir4.1/5.1 in the regulation of [Cl-]i. We conclude that the alteration in ClC-K2, KCC, and Kir4.1/5.1 activity influences [Cl-]i in the DCT.
Su, X., Klett, N. J., Sharma, A., Allen, C. N., Wang, W., Yang, C., & Ellison, D. H. (2020). Distal Convoluted Tubule Cl - concentration is Modulated via K + Channels and Transporters. American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology, 319 (3), 534-540. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00284.2020