NYMC Faculty Publications


A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker: Etripamil: What is the Future of Intranasal Drug Delivery in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias?

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Review Article

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Symptomatic paroxysmal cardiac arrhythmias are common cardiac conditions that lead to a decreased quality of life, increased healthcare costs, and significant morbidity. Many cardiac arrhythmias increase in frequency with age, and as the elderly population continues to increase, so will the incidence and prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. The long-term treatment options for patients with paroxysmal arrhythmias include ablation procedures and daily oral antiarrhythmics. Acute management entails vagal maneuvers, intravenous antiarrhythmics, and synchronized cardioversion. However, there are limited treatment options for patients with less frequent and less severe arrhythmias, ablation refractory disease, or who are poor candidates for ablative procedures, For abortive therapy, oral anti-arrhythmic medications are ineffective due to their slow onset of action and intravenous medications require treatment at an acute care facility, which is both costly and stressful to the patient. Etripamil is a novel intranasal non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that has begun phase III clinical trials for the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias. Due to its intranasal mode of delivery, etripamil has a rapid onset of action, and could feasibly be administered by the patient themselves. Clinical phase II trials of etripamil in moderate to high doses demonstrated efficacy comparable to the standard of care, and took an average of 3 minutes from drug administration to conversion to sinus rhythm. In this article, we have conducted an extensive literature review of intranasal drug delivery, calcium channel blockers, and etripamil, to discuss the future possibilities of using this new medication.