NYMC Faculty Publications

Unraveling the Role of 12- and 20- HETE in Cardiac Pathophysiology: G-Protein-Coupled Receptors, Pharmacological Inhibitors, and Transgenic Approaches

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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

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Review Article

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Arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators play crucial roles in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Eicosanoid metabolites generated by lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450 enzymes produce several classes of molecules, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) family of bioactive lipids. In general, the cardioprotective effects of EETs have been documented across a number of cardiac diseases. In contrast, members of the HETE family have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic cardiac disease, maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. The net effect of 12(S)- and 20-HETE depends upon the relative amounts generated, ratio of HETEs:EETs produced, timing of synthesis, as well as cellular and subcellular mechanisms activated by each respective metabolite. HETEs are synthesized by and affect multiple cell types within the myocardium. Moreover, cytochrome P450-derived and lipoxygenase- derived metabolites have been shown to directly influence cardiac myocyte growth and the regulation of cardiac fibroblasts. The mechanistic data uncovered thus far have employed the use of enzyme inhibitors, HETE antagonists, and the genetic manipulation of lipid-producing enzymes and their respective receptors, all of which influence a complex network of outcomes that complicate data interpretation. This review will summarize and integrate recent findings on the role of 12(S)-/20-HETE in cardiac diseases.