NYMC Faculty Publications

Opioid-Free Multimodal Analgesia Pathway to Decrease Opioid Utilization After Cesarean Delivery

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The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research

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Obstetrics and Gynecology


AIM: To evaluate an opioid-free multimodal analgesic pathway (MAP) to decrease opioid utilization after cesarean delivery (CD) compared to historic data of our institution prior to using MAP for pain management (pre-MAP).

METHODS: The MAP was implemented in three phases from September 2018 to August 2019. Patients received 1000 mg intravenous (IV) acetaminophen with 30 mg IV ketorolac at 0 (arrival time at recovery room), 6, 12 and 18 h of postoperative course. On the 2nd and the 3rd postoperative days, patients were monitored for pain every 6 h by Numeric Pain Intensity Scale (0 = no pain to 10 = severe pain) and administered 600 mg oral ibuprofen for a pain score between 0 and 4, 600 mg oral ibuprofen and/or 650 mg oral acetaminophen for a pain score between 5-6, 1000 mg IV acetaminophen and/or 30 mg of IV or intramuscular ketorolac for a pain score between 7 and 10. Five milligrams of oral oxycodone was reserved for rescue if all protocol options were exhausted. Patients were discharged with 600 mg oral ibuprofen without opioid prescription. Likert surveys measuring patient satisfaction of pain control were administered during phase 3.

RESULTS: Inpatient and outpatient opioid consumption rates were significantly decreased from 45%, 18% to 23.8%, 8.5% after MAP implementation (P-value

CONCLUSION: MAP Implementation after CD significantly reduced inpatient and outpatient opioid consumption compared to pre-MAP results while maintaining high patients' satisfaction with pain control.