Associations of Baseline Frailty Status and Age With Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Vestibular Schwannoma Resection
IMPORTANCE: Although numerous studies have evaluated the influence of advanced age on surgical outcomes following vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection, few if any large-scale investigations have assessed the comparative prognostic effects of age and frailty. As the population continues to age, it is imperative to further evaluate treatment and management strategies for older patients.
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a population-based evaluation of the independent associations of chronological age and frailty (physiological age) with outcomes following VS resection.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this large-scale, multicenter, cross-sectional analysis, weighted discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample were searched to identify adult patients (≥18 years old) who underwent VS resection from 2002 through 2017 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Data collection and analysis took place September to December 2020.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Complex samples regression models and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to evaluate the independent associations of frailty and age (along with demographic confounders) with complications and discharge disposition. Frailty was evaluated using the previously validated 11-point modified frailty index (mFI).
RESULTS: Among the 27 313 patients identified for VS resection, the mean (SEM) age was 50.4 (0.2) years, 15 031 (55.0%) were women, and 4720 (21.0%) were of non-White race/ethnicity, as determined by the National Inpatient Sample data source. Of the included patients, 15 090 (55.2%) were considered robust (mFI score = 0), 8204 (30.0%) were prefrail (mFI score = 1), 3022 (11.1%) were frail (mFI score = 2), and 996 (3.6%) were severely frail (mFI score ≥3). On univariable analysis, increasing frailty was associated with development of postoperative hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR], 2.44 [95% CI, 2.07-2.87]; area under the curve, 0.73), while increasing age was not. Following multivariable analysis, increasing frailty and non-White race/ethnicity were independently associated with both mortality (adjusted OR [aOR], 2.32 [95% CI, 1.70-3.17], and aOR, 3.05 [95% CI, 1.02-9.12], respectively) and extended hospital stays (aOR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.41-1.67], and aOR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.42-2.05], respectively), while increasing age was not. Increasing frailty (aOR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.56-0.67]), age (aOR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.97-0.99]), and non-White race/ethnicity (aOR, 0.62 [95% CI 0.51-0.75]) were all independently associated with routine discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cross-sectional study, findings suggest that frailty may be more accurate for predicting outcomes and guiding treatment decisions than advanced patient age alone following VS resection.
Dicpinigaitis, A. J., Kalakoti, P., Schmidt, M., Gurgel, R., Cole, C., Carlson, A., Pickett, B., Sun, H., Mukherjee, D., Al-Mufti, F., & Bowers, C. A. (2021). Associations of Baseline Frailty Status and Age With Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Vestibular Schwannoma Resection. JAMA Otolaryngology-- Head & Neck Surgery, 147 (7), 608-614. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2021.0670