Influence of Diabetes Mellitus Interactions With Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Post-Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Hospitalizations
OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of information regarding how cardiovascular risk factors (RF) modulate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the heart failure hospitalization (HFH) risk following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Adult survivors of an AMI were retrospectively identified from the 2014 US Nationwide Readmissions Database. The impact of DM on the risk for a 6-month HFH was studied in subgroups of RFs using multivariable logistic regression to adjust for baseline risk differences. Individual interactions of DM with RFs were tested. RESULTS: Of 237,549 AMI survivors, 37.2% patients had DM. Primary outcome occurred in 12,934 patients (5.4%), at a 106% higher rate in DM patients (7.9% vs 4.0%, p < 0.001), which was attenuated to a 45% higher adjusted risk. Higher HFH risk in DM patients was consistent across subgroups and significant interactions were present between DM and other RFs. The increased HFH risk with DM was more pronounced in patients without certain HF RFs compared with those with these RFs [age < 65: OR for DM 1.84 (1.58-2.13) vs age ≥ 65: OR 1.34 (1.24-1.45); HF absent during index AMI: OR for DM 1.87 (1.66-2.10) vs HF present: OR 1.24 (1.14-1.34); atrial fibrillation absent: OR for DM 1.57 (1.46-1.68) vs present: OR 1.19 (1.06-1.33); P < 0.001 for all]. Similar results were noted for hypertension and chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: AMI survivors with DM had a higher risk of 6-month HFHs. The impact of DM on the increased HFH risk was more pronounced in patients without certain RFs suggesting that more aggressive preventive strategies related to DM and HF are needed in these subgroups to prevent or delay the onset of HFHs.
Yandrapalli, S., Malik, A. H., Namrata, F., Pemmasani, G., Bandyopadhyay, D., Vallabhajosyula, S., Aronow, W. S., Frishman, W. H., Jain, D., Cooper, H. A., & Panza, J. A. (2022). Influence of Diabetes Mellitus Interactions With Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Post-Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Hospitalizations. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.11.086