NYMC Faculty Publications

The Risk of Mortality in Geriatric Patients With Emergent Gastroparesis Is 7-Fold Greater Than That in Adult Patients: An Analysis of 27,000 Patients

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Surgical Technology International

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BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis, a chronic disorder distinguished by delays in gastric emptying, has been a concern for both health providers and hospitals due to several of its characteristics. Gastroparesis is heterogeneous in nature and is associated with several comorbidities and increasing mortality rates. It can often be caused by underlying conditions, most of which are not well understood. This lack of knowledge regarding its underlying mechanisms creates a need to better understand the risk factors involved in this patient population. This study was undertaken to understand the risk factors involved in the mortality of patients who present with gastroparesis. METHODS: This retrospective study considered data from the National Inpatient Sample for patients who were admitted with a primary diagnosis of gastroparesis from 2005 to 2014. The data were stratified according to various factors of interest to identify risk factors involved in mortality using statistical tools, including a multivariable logistic regression model with backward elimination. RESULTS: A total of 27,000 patients were admitted emergently with a primary diagnosis of gastroparesis. The mortality rate in adult patients (0.18%, N=39) was much lower than that in elderly patients (1.27%, N=71). Females accounted for the majority of patients in both the adult (73.7%) and elderly (71%) populations. The mean age of patients in the adult and elderly groups was 43 and 75 years, respectively. The association between mortality and age was significant in both adults (OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.005-1.08, p<0.025) and the elderly (OR=1.08, 95%CI=1.04-1.12, p<0.001). The hospital length of stay (HLOS, days) in adult females (5.08, SD=5.04) was significantly longer than that in adult males (4.41, SD=5.10) (p<0.001). The association between mortality and HLOS was significant in both adults (OR=1.12, 95%CI=1.09-1.15, p<0.001) and elderly patients (OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.06-1.14, p<0.001). A lower percentage of adults (6.6%, N=1,402) underwent an operation compared to the elderly (9.6%, N=538). The mean time to operation was 4.76 days for adult patients who survived and 17.50 days for adult patients who did not survive (SD=5.37 and 9.37, respectively, p=0.006). On the other hand, this value was 5.57 and 9.10 days for elderly patients (SD=6.50 and 7.15, respectively, p=0.037). Among patients who underwent an operation, the association between mortality and time to operation was significant for both adults (OR=1.17, 95%CI=1.094-1.247, p<0.001) and elderly patients (OR=1.05, 95%CI=1.005-1.124, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The risk of mortality in elderly patients with emergent gastroparesis was 7-fold greater than that in adult patients. The odds of mortality increased by 8% for every year increase in age in elderly patients and by 4% in adults.