Bempegaldesleukin Plus Nivolumab in First-Line Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Results From PIVOT-02
BACKGROUND: Despite recent changes in the treatment landscape, there remains an unmet need for effective, tolerable, chemotherapy-free treatments for patients with advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC), especially cisplatin-ineligible patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunostimulatory interleukin-2 cytokine prodrug bempegaldesleukin (BEMPEG) plus nivolumab in patients with advanced/mUC from the phase 2 multicenter PIVOT-02 study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This open-label, multicohort phase 1/2 study enrolled patients with previously untreated locally advanced/surgically unresectable or mUC (N = 41). INTERVENTION: Patients received BEMPEG 0.006 mg/kg plus nivolumab 360 mg intravenously every 3 wk. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary objectives were safety and the objective response rate (ORR) in patients with measurable disease at baseline and at least one postbaseline tumor response assessment (response-evaluable). Secondary objectives were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Exploratory biomarker analyses via univariate logistic regression were performed to test the association between potential biomarkers (CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor mutational burden, and IFN-γ gene expression profile) and response. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The ORR was 35% (13/37 evaluable patients) and the complete response rate was 19% (7/37 patients); the median duration of response was not reached. Median PFS was 4.1 mo (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-8.7) and median OS was 23.7 mo (95% CI 15.8-not reached). Overall, 40/41 patients (98%) experienced at least one treatment-related adverse event (TRAE); grade 3/4 TRAEs occurred in 11 patients (27%), most commonly pyrexia (4.9%; 2 patients). Exploratory biomarker analyses showed no association between biomarkers and response. Limitations include the small sample size and single-arm design. CONCLUSIONS: BEMPEG plus nivolumab was well tolerated and showed antitumor activity as first-line treatment in patients with locally advanced/mUC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We investigated an immune-stimulating prodrug called bempegaldesleukin plus the antibody nivolumab as the first therapy for patients with advanced or metastatic cancer of the urinary tract. This combination had manageable treatment-related side effects and was effective in a subset of patients. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02983045.
Siefker-Radtke, A. O., Cho, D. C., Diab, A., Sznol, M., Bilen, M. A., Balar, A. V., Grignani, G., Puente, E., Tang, L., Chien, D., Hoch, U., Choudhury, A., Yu, D., Currie, S. L., Tagliaferri, M. A., Zalevsky, J., Hurwitz, M. E., & Tannir, N. M. (2022). Bempegaldesleukin Plus Nivolumab in First-Line Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Results From PIVOT-02. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2022.05.002