Assessment of Hypertension and Other Factors Associated With the Severity of Disease in COVID-19 Pneumonia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study
BACKGROUND: Various reports suggested that pre-existing medical illnesses, including hypertension and other demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors, could pose an increased risk of disease severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the relation of hypertension and other factors to the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients discharged from Eka Kotebe Hospital in June-September, 2020. METHODS: This is a single-center case-control study of 265 adult patients discharged alive or dead, 75 with a course of severe COVID-19 for the cases arm and 190 with the non-severe disease for the control arm. Three age and sex-matched controls were selected randomly for each patient on the case arm. Chi-square, multivariable binary logistic regression, and odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval was used to assess the association between the various factors and the severity of the disease. A p-value of <0.05 is considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 265 study participants, 80% were male. The median age was 43 IQR(36-60) years. Both arms had similar demographic characteristics. Hypertension was strongly associated with the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia based on effect outcome adjustment (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.489, 5.783, p-value = 0.002), similarly, having diabetes mellitus (AOR = 3.17, 95% CI 1.374, 7.313, p-value<0.007), chronic cardiac disease (AOR = 4.803, 95% CI 1.238-18.636, p<0.023), and an increase in a pulse rate (AOR = 1.041, 95% CI 1.017, 1.066, p-value = 0.001) were found to have a significant association with the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension was associated with the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, and so were diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac disease, and an increase in pulse rate.
Ashamo, A. Y., Bekele, A., Petrose, A., Gebreyes, T., Etissa, E. K., Bekele, A., Haisch, D., Schluger, N. W., Yusuf, H., Haile, T., Deyessa, N., & Kebede, D. (2022). Assessment of Hypertension and Other Factors Associated With the Severity of Disease in COVID-19 Pneumonia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273012