NYMC Faculty Publications

Age Increases the Risk of Mortality by Four-Fold in Patients With Emergent Paralytic Ileus: Hospital Length of Stay, Sex, Frailty, and Time to Operation as Other Risk Factors

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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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Background: In the United States, ileus accounts for USD 750 million of healthcare expenditures annually and significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality. Despite its significance, the complete picture of mortality risk factors for these patients have yet to be fully elucidated; therefore, the aim of this study is to identify mortality risk factors in patients emergently admitted with paralytic ileus. Methods: Adult and elderly patients emergently admitted with paralytic ileus between 2005−2014 were investigated using the National Inpatient Sample Database. Clinical outcomes, therapeutic management, demographics and comorbidities were collected. Associations between mortality and all other variables were established via univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: A total of 81,674 patients were included, of which 45.2% were adults, 54.8% elderly patients, 45.8% male and 54.2% female. The average adult and elderly ages were 48.3 and 78.8 years, respectively. Elderly patients displayed a significantly (p < 0.01) higher mortality rate (3.0%) than adults (0.7%). The final multivariable logistic regression model showed that for every one-day delay in operation, the odds of mortality for adult and elderly patients increased by 4.1% (p = 0.002) and 3.2% (p = 0.014), respectively. Every additional year of age corresponded to 3.8% and 2.6% increases in mortality for operatively managed adult (p = 0.026) and elderly (p = 0.015) patients. Similarly, non-operatively treated adult and elderly patients displayed associations between mortality and advanced age (p = 0.001). The modified frailty index exhibited associations with mortality in operatively treated adults, conservatively managed adults and conservatively managed elderly patients (p = 0.001). Every additional day of hospitalization increased the odds of mortality in non-operative adult and elderly patients by 7.6% and 5.8%, respectively. Female sex correlated to lower mortality rates in non-operatively managed adult patients (odds ratio = 0.71, p = 0.028). Undergoing invasive diagnostic procedures in non-operatively managed elderly patients related to reduced mortality (odds ratio = 0.78, p = 0.026). Conclusions: Patients emergently admitted for paralytic ileus with increased hospital length of stay, longer time to operation, advanced age or higher modified frailty index displayed higher mortality rates. Female sex and invasive diagnostic procedures were negatively correlated with death in nonoperatively managed patients with paralytic ileus.