NYMC Faculty Publications

Sinus Tachycardia: A Multidisciplinary Expert Focused Review


Kenneth A. Mayuga, Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, OH (K.A.M.).
Artur Fedorowski, Karolinska Institutet & Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden (A.F.).
Fabrizio Ricci, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G.d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti Scalo, Italy (F.R.).
Rakesh Gopinathannair, Kansas City Heart Rhythm Institute, Overland Park (R.G.).
Jonathan Walter Dukes, Community Memorial Hospital, Ventura, CA (J.W.D.).
Christopher Gibbons, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (C.G.).
Peter Hanna, University of California, Los Angeles (P.H.).
Dan Sorajja, Mayo Clinic Arizona (D.S.).
Mina Chung, Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (M.C.).
David Benditt, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (D.B.).
Robert Sheldon, University of Calgary, Canada (R.S.).
Mirna B. Ayache, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (M.B.A.).
Hiba AbouAssi, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (H.A.A.).
Kalyanam Shivkumar, University of California, Los Angeles (K.S.).
Blair P. Grubb, The University of Toledo Medical Center, OH (B.P.G.).
Mohamed H. Hamdan, University of Wisconsin, Madison (M.H.H.).
Stavros Stavrakis, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City (S.S.).
Tamanna Singh, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, OH (T.S.).
Jeffrey J. Goldberger, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, FL (J.J.G.).
James A. Muldowney, Vanderbilt University Medical Center &Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville Campus, Department of Veterans Affairs, TN (J.A.S.M.).
Mark Belham, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS FT, United Kingdom (M.B.).
David C. Kem, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (D.C.K.).
Cem Akin, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (C.A.).
Barbara K. Bruce, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (B.K.B.).
Nicole E. Zahka, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH (N.E.Z.).
Qi Fu, Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas & University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (Q.F.).
Erik H. Van Iterson, Section of Preventive Cardiology & Rehabilitation, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Miller Family Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH (E.H.V.I.).
Satish R. Raj, Department of Cardiac Sciences, Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada (S.R.R.).
Fetnat Fouad-Tarazi, Cleveland Clinic, OH (F.F.-T.).
David S. Goldstein, CNP/DIR/NINDS/NIH, Bethesda, MD (D.S.G.).
Julian Stewart, New York Medical College, Hawthorne (J.S.).
Brian Olshansky

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Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology

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Sinus tachycardia (ST) is ubiquitous, but its presence outside of normal physiological triggers in otherwise healthy individuals remains a commonly encountered phenomenon in medical practice. In many cases, ST can be readily explained by a current medical condition that precipitates an increase in the sinus rate, but ST at rest without physiological triggers may also represent a spectrum of normal. In other cases, ST may not have an easily explainable cause but may represent serious underlying pathology and can be associated with intolerable symptoms. The classification of ST, consideration of possible etiologies, as well as the decisions of when and how to intervene can be difficult. ST can be classified as secondary to a specific, usually treatable, medical condition (eg, pulmonary embolism, anemia, infection, or hyperthyroidism) or be related to several incompletely defined conditions (eg, inappropriate ST, postural tachycardia syndrome, mast cell disorder, or post-COVID syndrome). While cardiologists and cardiac electrophysiologists often evaluate patients with symptoms associated with persistent or paroxysmal ST, an optimal approach remains uncertain. Due to the many possible conditions associated with ST, and an overlap in medical specialists who see these patients, the inclusion of experts in different fields is essential for a more comprehensive understanding. This article is unique in that it was composed by international experts in Neurology, Psychology, Autonomic Medicine, Allergy and Immunology, Exercise Physiology, Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Endocrinology, Cardiology, and Cardiac Electrophysiology in the hope that it will facilitate a more complete understanding and thereby result in the better care of patients with ST.